support/troff-to-latex), written by Kamal Al-Yahya at Stanford University (California, USA), assists in the translation of a troff document into LaTeX format. It recognises most
-manmacros, plus most eqn and some tbl preprocessor commands. Anything fancier needs to be done by hand. Two style files are provided. There is also a man page (which converts very well to LaTeX...). The program is copyrighted but free. An enhanced version of this program, tr2latex, is available in
The DECUS TeX distribution (see sources of software) also contains a program which converts troff to TeX.
support/wp2latex) has recently been much improved, and is now available either for MS-DOS or for Unix systems, thanks to its current maintainer Jaroslav Fojtik.
support/pcwritex, is a print driver for PC-Write that ``prints'' a PC-Write V2.71 document to a TeX-compatible disk file. It was written by Peter Flynn at University College, Cork, Republic of Ireland.
email@example.com) conversion program is written in VMS Pascal. The sources and a VAX executable are available from
In spite of the directory name, it also contains a shell script to convert BibTeX to refer as well. The collection is not maintained.
support/rtf2tex, which was written and is maintained by Robert Lupton (
firstname.lastname@example.org). There is also a convertor to LaTeX by Erwin Wechtl, in
Translation to RTF may be done (for a somewhat
constrained set of LaTeX documents) by TeX2RTF, which
can produce ordinary RTF, Windows Help RTF (as well as
HTML, conversion to HTML).
TeX2RTF is supported on various Unix platforms and under
Windows 3.1; it is available from
dviware/wd2latex); a better idea, however, is to convert the document to RTF format and use one of the RTF converters mentioned above.
A FAQ that deals specifically with conversions between
TeX-based formats and word processor formats is regularly posted to
comp.text.tex, is available via
http://www.kfa-juelich.de/isr/1/texconv/texcnv.html and is archived as
A group at Ohio State University (USA) is working on a common document format based on SGML, with the ambition that any format could be translated to or from this one. FrameMaker provides ``import filters'' to aid translation from alien formats (presumably including TeX) to Framemaker's own.
The aim here is to emulate the Unix nroff, which formats text as best it can for the screen, from the same input as the Unix typesetting program troff.
Ralph Droms (
email@example.com) has a style file and a
program that provide the LaTeX equivalent of nroff,
though it doesn't do a good job with tables and mathematics. The
software is available in
support/txt; the original
dvi2tty often does an acceptable job and is available in
Another possibility is to use
screen.sty (available as
macros/latex209/contrib/misc/screen.sty). Use a dvi2tty program of some kind;
you might try
dviware/crudetype as well. Another possibility is to
use the LaTeX-to-ASCII conversion program, l2a
support/l2a), although this is really more of a de-TeXing
The canonical de-TeXing program is detex
support/detex), which removes all comments and control sequences
from its input before writing it to its output. Its original purpose
was to prepare input for a dumb spelling checker.
SGML is a very important system for document storage and interchange,
but it has no formatting features; its companion ISO standard
http://www.jclark.com/dsssl/) is designed for writing
transformations and formatting,
but this has not yet been widely implemented. Some SGML authoring
systems (e.g., SoftQuad Author/Editor) have formatting
there are high-end specialist SGML typesetting systems (e.g., Miles33's
Genera). However, the majority of SGML users probably transform
the source to an existing typesetting system when they want to print.
TeX is a good candidate for this. There are three approaches to writing a
If these packages don't meet your needs for an average SGML typesetting job, you need the big commercial stuff.
Since HTML is simply an example of SGML, we do not need a specific
system for HTML. However, Nathan Torkington
html2latex from the HTML parser in NCSA's
The program takes an HTML file and generates a LaTeX file from it.
The conversion code is subject to NCSA restrictions, but the whole
source is available as
Michel Goossens and Janne Saarela published a very useful summary of SGML, and of public domain tools for writing and manipulating it, in TUGboat 16(2).
TeX is a typesetting language, not a markup system. With properly-used LaTeX, you may be luckier, but don't expect a free lunch. Remember that a) if you want a really good Web document, you had better redesign it from scratch, and b) HTML (even HTML3) has pretty poor `typesetting' facilities, and anything beyond the trivial will probably need to end up a graphic.
support/latex2html) is a package by Nikos Drakos
(mostly of perl scripts) that breaks up a LaTeX document
into one or more components, and links them together so that they can
be read over the World-Wide Web as an hypertext document.
It defines a mapping between LaTeX intra-document
references and hyperlinks, and extends the
mechanisms to permit reference to other (possibly remote) documents
and other Internet resources. It translates LaTeX accented and
other characters (as best it can) to things that World-Wide Web
browsers can display, and translates mathematics
(and other things that browsers can't deal with) to
images that can be loaded in-line into the hypertext document.
LaTeX2HTML needs Perl, the PBM utilities, dvips, Ghostscript, and other sundries; it assumes it is running on a Unix system. Michel Goossens and Janne Saarela published a detailed discussion of LaTeX2HTML, and how to tailor it, in TUGboat 16(2).
There are two alternative strategies:
support/latex2rtf) does a plausible job on a subset of LaTeX;
If you want on-line hypertext with a (La)TeX source, probably on the World Wide Web, consider four technologies (which overlap):
\specialcommands); there are supporting macro packages for plain TeX and LaTeX).
The HyperTeX project aims to extend the functionality of all the
LaTeX cross-referencing commands (including the table of contents)
\special commands which are parsed by DVI processors
conforming to the HyperTeX guidelines;
it provides general hypertext links, including those
to external documents.
The HyperTeX specification says that conformant viewers/translators
must recognize the following set of
html:<a href = "href_string">
html:<a name = "name_string">
html:<img src = "href_string">
html:<base href = "href_string">
The href, name and end commands are used to do the basic hypertext operations of establishing links between sections of documents.
Further details are available on
are two commonly-used implementations of the specification, a
modified xdvi and (recent releases of) dvips. Output from the
latter may be used in recent releases of Ghostscript or Acrobat Distiller.
There are three general routes to Acrobat output: Adobe's original `distillation' route (via PostScript output), conversion of an DVI file, and the use of a direct PDF generator such PDFTeX (see the PDFTeX project) or MicroPress's VTeX (see commercial TeX implementations).
For simple documents (with no hyper-references), you can either
dviware/dvipdfm, and on the latest TeX-live disc), or
systems/linux/micropress) has wider graphics capability, dealing with encapsulated PostScript and some in-line PostScript.
To translate all the LaTeX cross-referencing into Acrobat
links, you need a LaTeX package to suitably redefine
the internal commands. There are two of these for LaTeX, both
capable of conforming to the HyperTeX specification
(see Making hypertext documents from TeX):
Sebastian Rahtz's hyperref (available from
macros/latex/contrib/supported/hyperref), and Michael Mehlich's
hyper (available from
uses a configuration file to determine how it will generate hypertext;
it can operate using PDFTeX primitives, the hyperTeX
\specials, or DVI driver-specific
dvips or Y&Y's \ProgName|DVIPSONE|
to translate the DVI into PostScript acceptable to
There is no free implementation of all of Adobe Distiller's functionality, but Ghostscript (version 4.00 onwards) provides some restricted distilling capability (note the restrictions on the fonts it can use). However, Distiller itself is now remarkably cheap (for academics at least).
For viewing (and printing) the resulting files, Adobe's
Acrobat Reader is available for a wide
range of platforms (see
ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/acrobatreader). For those
platforms for which Adobe's reader is unavailable,
GhostScript (versions 3.51 onwards) can display
and print PDF files.